According to Shiotsu (2010, p. 4), reading is defined as “complex cognitive process the individual is involved in while engaged with a written text”. The author states that the theory and model of reading has been discussed for the late 1960s. Reading is also referred to the code used to interpret for meaning (Angelita & Rene, 1985). In other words, reading is a process of awareness of the readers to the text written with the certain meaning and purposes.
It can be said that reading is one of four essential skills when learning every language, including English – a compulsory subject in the curriculum of Vietnamese schools. Indeed, reading brings many benefits for the students like consolidating grammar; learning to express, new phrases, new structures; and expanding vocabulary. In particular, extensive reading that is student – centered approach helps the students overcome the obstacles in English grammar, spelling, pronunciation, vocabulary usage of native speakers (Jacobs & Farrell, 2012). In term of materials, the students can use both print and electronic versions of texts, and then, get the knowledge through reading these texts (Snow, 2002). However, how to make reading become effective and useful is a matter to be considered by all schools in the current context.
Based on the recognition that reading plays important role in studying English for students at all levels, including secondary school, in the scope of this research, the author mentions an effective way to improve reading skill for students of Le Hong Phong Secondary school: Extensive reading. To provide a useful method in order to help students in this secondary school improve their reading skills, I conduct a study that is considered as a research innovation is titled “Teaching reading through extensive for secondary students”. I hope that this extensive reading method will help students at Le Hong Phong Secondary school read better, thereby having positive attitudes in reading and getting comprehension knowledge in the lessons.
Research questions are the questions given and answered by the research results. Research questions play an important role in the development of research proposals. It contributes to the process oriented research on the content, as well as methods of implementation, limited range of subjects and scope that the authors wish to study (Alvesson and Sandberg, 2003).
The research questions of this study include:
Q1: How does extensive reading affect reading comprehension for secondary students?
Q2: How do students respond towards the use of extensive reading project?
2. Innovation rationale
In advance of the researcher’s experience in teaching English for elementary in general and teching reading in particular, reading demands a huge concentration of teachers, especially teacher’s feedback whenever the students reading falsely in some reading skills such as pronunciation, intonation,… Moreover, English reading teaching of the researcher has faced to a great number of issues, such as lack of confidence as well as vocabulary of rural secondary learners,… Whenever teacher requires the students to read, they often stay silently and seem embarrassed during reading lesson or they are reluctant to read. In practice, the students feel difficult in reading English with their teacher and friends. In general, they can’t read naturally and comfortably.
Because of this reason, the researcher would like to conduct this innovation research. It is an innovation because in previous research “Teaching reading through extensive for secondary students”, the researcher only use extensive. Although it helped the students feel more confident in reading class, it has not encouraged high level students. The research will be organized in 6 weeks and examine the students’ modification in reading. In the innovative research proposal, the researcher is interested in exploring the types of data employed and the research methods in some previous studies. Reading extensively: Schmitt (2000), extensive reading was defined that students read extensively in a large number of material without any supportive language elements. There are some researchers stating about benefits of extensive reading, such as Hedge (2000), presents stimulate students’ reading ability, extensive reading can help the learners improve their vocabulary, grammar and reading comprehension; Pigada & Schmitt (2006), indicate that extensive reading increases students’ lexical knowledge as spelling, grammar,, and meaning understanding; Nishino (2007), states that extensive reading promotes students’ motivation, confidence and reading strategy; Iwahori (2008), presents that extensive reading improves students’ reading sate and general language proficiency.
There will be 25 students (13 boys and 12 girls) participating in my innovation in 6 weeks, from August to the second week of September, 2015 (or 08/01/2015/ to 09/15/2015). Before conducting the innovation, I think that it’s very necessary to have detailed plan in order to reach the highest success for the study. I expect the activities taking place in 6 weeks include:
• Week 1 (from August 01st, 2015 to August 08th, 2015): Introduce about the research to help the students understand the purpose of the study and become familiar with new reading method.
• Week 2 – week 5: Conduct observation and writing field-notes to conduct the initial steps of the research and collect data .
• Week 6: Deliver questionnaire to the participants to get attitude, feeling and wishes of the students or participants of the study.
After collecting all the necessary data from the research methods, I will summarize and analyze the data and then, give research results, including the evaluation of the effectiveness of applying the extensive reading method to enhance reading skills for the students of Le Hong Phong Secondary school.
3. Methodology and research methods
My research will be conducted in Le Hong Phong Secondary school, located in Dong Thanh district, Ninh Binh province. Results of the study will focus on the assessment of the use of extensive reading method in improving reading skills for the students at Le Hong Phong Secondary school.
In this study, I only use qualitative research methods, including observation, field-notes and questionnaire. According to Maxwell (2012), qualitative research helps the researchers expand the problem than quantitative research, because quantitative research only bases on data collected to prove the findings. I find that qualitative research method is suitable for this study, so I choose this research approach to conduct my innovation through answering two above research questions. In addition, qualitative research is an approach that seeks to describe and analyze the cultural characteristics and behavior of people and groups of people from the perspective of the researchers (Willis, 2008). Therefore, qualitative research provides comprehensive information on the characteristics of the social environment where the studies are conducted. Besides, although test method can be used in qualitative approach, I don’t use it for this study, because it seems not be suitable for secondary students. In fact, they are not good at writing in English, so they can’t test and it is hard for the author to collect data. Therefore, based on the foundation of the research, I will employ qualitative methods: observation, field-notes and questionnaire.
3.2. Research methods
As mentioned above, I use three types of qualitative approach, including observation, field-notes and questionnaire. These are explored to collect data for analysis and get better results.
Observation is one of the most common methods in the qualitative research methods (Trochim, Donnelly, and Arora, 2015). Therefore, there are many different ways to define this concept, but “it’s also difficult to provide an exact definition of participant observation” (Grinnell & Unrau, 2008, p. 224). We can see that participant observation is used intentionally according to the certain specifications given senses with written language (and all the technical means) to record, collect the expression of the object of study, serving as materials for the research.
In this research, the participants who are observed includes 25 students at Le Hong Phong Secondary school. Particularly, this method will be conducted in 3 lessons/week, each lesson is 45 minutes and will be observed whole lesson by the researcher. The researcher will be observer and the researcher’s colleagues will be observed. Observation form will be attached in Appendix 1.
According to Bloor & Wood (2006, p.82), field-notes is a method used to “record observations and fragments of remembered speech”. The author also point out some distinctive features of this method as privacy, timeliness, detail, difference among moments, and same as writing. In addition, Schwandt (2015) states that there is no standard to define this method. He cites perspective of some researchers that it likes “raw data or material” based on researchers’ obsevations and discussion, or some other views consider it as journal,… In summary, field-notes are records written by date or time (depend on requirements of the study) to collect data from actual observations of researchers.
In this study, this technique will be written as soon as possible after the observation by the researcher (teacher). Field-notes guide will be also in Appendix 2.
According to Kotabe & Helsen (2009), the questionnaire is a popular and essential tool in the study to help the researchers collect data. In addition, it helps the researchers orient the participants towards the issues related to answering the research questions posed. There are many forms of research questions, such as:
Fixed – response: includes Yes / No, multiple choice, Likert rating.
Open – ended response: asks for opinions, feelings of participants.
In this research, I only use fixed – response form, namely Likert rating to design the questionnaire. To fit with the competency as well as create excitement and conditions for students, I translate all the questions into Vietnamese and then deliver to them at the end of the research. The form of questionnaire will be shown in Appendix 3.
According to Butcher (1966, p. 1), the theory of sampling relates to “the planning and analysis of sample surveys”. The participant is one of the vital components to create a study. Because, without the participants, the interview can not be conducted, so the findings are not based on actual opinions of subjects related to the study, leading to impractical and incorrect research. Therefore, participants play a key role in all studies including qualitative and quantitative research. In this study, participants are defined below:
• Interviewee: Students of class 7A at Le Hong Phong Secondary school.
• Standards of the sample: The students learning in class 7A at Le Hong Phong Secondary school can be selected as research sample. They are male or female and they will have finished the last eight units of English grade 7 published by Ministry of Education and Training in the first semester. In addition, the participants had received over four months of English instruction and three English teachers who are the researcher’s colleagues.
In this study, I use non-random sampling to choose the sample. In particular, quota sampling that is a purposeful method is selected. Quota sampling is a method in which researchers try to ensure that the samples selected have a rate corresponding to the overall rate by some important parameters as age, gender, occupation,… (Sapsford & Jupp, 2006). In other words, quota sampling requires the researchers to predetermine the characteristics that are looking for and then, find the samples responding these characteristics by accessing randomly to individuals who can fit requirements. The interviewers may use their own knowledge or experience to make decisions about the samples. Therefore, we can see that, this method is very suitable for this study because I can identify the characteristics of the sample before conducting observating.
- CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
- EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT ANALYSIS